Frog and Toad Resources

Monitoring Programs

Reference Materials

  • Lang Elliot books/recordings
    • His web site is now   As the name suggests, he has excellent recordings ranging from toads/frogs, insects, birds and to things that make noises in the night.
    • His frog/toad CDs contains different types of calls (advertisement, aggressive, release) for a species, when appropriate. I have found this to be very helpful in distinguishing the less common calls and not confusing them with other species. For example, the spring peeper advertisement call is easily recognized, but there is also an aggressive call that has more trill. The first time I heard it, I thought it was a different species, but this CD made it clear it was just an angry spring peeper.
    • The Frogs and Toads of North America by Lang Elliot, Carl Gerhardt and Carlos Davidson. Published by Houghton Mifflin, March 2009
      • Contains information about all 101 species found in North America with substantially more content than his prior frog call book. The CD contains recordings of all toads and frogs that call. All for under $20.
    • The Calls of Frogs and Toads by Lang Elliot. Published by Stackpole Books, 2004, ISBN 978-0811729680
      • The earlier version of his frog and toad material covering 44 species with less descriptive text.
  • Montgomery County (Maryland) Frog and Toad Identification web page
    • Photographs and recordings of local frogs and toads
    • Other information about seasonal pools that are important amphibian habitat
  • National Amphibian Atlas, US Geological Survey
    • Maps showing where different species are found
  • Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative, US Geological Survey
    • A wide variety of fairly technical information is provided. They describe their program that uses a different (more complicated) procedure than Frogwatch.
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
    • The US/Canadian/Mexican and International source of authoritative taxonomic information.
    • The genus of North American "true frog" changed from Rana to Lithobates and toads from Bufo to Anaxyrus. These changes have not been universally accepted, but have been adopted by ITIS, so that classification is used on this web site.
  • Virgina Herpetological Society,
    • Photographs of frogs and toads, calls, known locations in Virginia and information for each species. Audio recordings are from Lang Elliott.
Photograph of a stream macroinvertebrate

Caddisfly larvae

A pollution-sensitive organism typically found in healthy streams